7 rivers of punjab


A. When Crystal was younger, she dreamt of going “to study at a university” (6). They also disallowed Bulleh Shah's followers to bury him in the city. In Pakistan the Indus is considered the Chief River and in India known as King River. The capital and largest city is Lahore which was the historical capital of the wider Punjab region. He had his capital at Sagala in the Punjab (present-day Sialkot). Timur Shah Durrani, the son and viceroy of Ahmad Shah Durrani, was driven out of Punjab. Around 75 CE under the leadership of Kujula Kadphises they gained control of Gandhara and other parts of what is now Pakistan. So, This further leads to a group of 8 Rivers. Turning to the northeast, Alexander marched to Pucela, the capital of the district now known as Pakhli. The music on these occasions is essentially folk and appealing. This page was last edited on 1 June 2020, at 02:13. Despite its tropical wet and dry climate, extensive irrigation makes it a rich agricultural region.

The name of the Gandhāris is attested in the Rigveda (RV 1.126.7[39]) and in ancient inscriptions dating back to Achaemenid Persia. Among the Punjabi poets, the names of Baba Farid, Shah Hussain, Sultan Bahu, Bulleh Shah, Waris Shah and Mian Muhammad Baksh are well known. ------------------------------------------------- western part of the country and towards the east of the state of Himachal Pradesh empty into the Arabian Sea. ; Background paper for the Education for all global monitoring report 2006: literacy for life; 2005", "Rural women uphold Pakistan's literacy rate", Punjabi Parchar spreads colours of love at Visakhi Mela, "Asthma treatment in Pakistani salt mine", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Punjab,_Pakistan&oldid=986032455#Geography, States and territories established in 1970, Punjabi-speaking countries and territories, Articles with dead external links from July 2018, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Punjabi-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2017, Articles needing additional references from February 2019, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2016, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Farīd laid the basis for a vernacular Punjabi literature and ultimately a Punjabi identity. According to Manzur Ejaz, "In Central Punjab, Punjabi is neither an official language of the province nor it is used as medium of education at any level. There are only two daily newspapers published in Punjabi in the Central areas of Punjab.

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The Indo-Scythians ultimately established a kingdom in the northwest south Asia, based near Taxila, with two great Satraps, one in Mathura in the east, and one in Surastrene (Gujarat) in the southwest.

Rainy season (July to September). In 1758 Raghunath Rao, the general of the Hindu Maratha Empire, conquered Lahore and Attock.

First Published: April 25, 2010 | Last Updated:November 23, 2019. Around 20–10 BCE, he made conquests in the former Indo-Scythian kingdom, perhaps after the death of the important ruler Azes. [18] Punjab is also one of South Asia's most urbanised regions with approximately 40% of people living in urban areas. The region was known to the ancient Greeks as Pentapotamia, meaning the "region of five rivers,"[27] while the Sanskrit name for the region, as mentioned in the Ramayana and Mahabharata, was Panchanada which means "Land of the Five Rivers. Name of the Candidate (In Punjabi) There still stand a few massive bridges that connect this part of the country to the other side, symbolic of the mighty river that once flowed under them. YES B. Settlers Its canal-irrigation system established by the British is the largest in the world. Whenever there is the mention of the great State of Texas, one tends to automatically visualize a sweltering hot, baron wasteland, saturated with 6-foot rattlesnakes, enormous oil wells, and handsome cowboys galloping on horses, with a six shooter attached to their hip. The Demographics However Punjabi, Kohistani, and Hindko are derived from the Prakrit that were spoken in Gandhara and its surrounding areas. He faced huge opposition from Nawab Muzaffar Khan, Azim Khan, Syed Ahmad Barelvi and Mir Painda Khan. FOR MATRICULATION EXAMINATION FAIL/RE-APPEAR IN SEMESTER SEPTEMBER 2013 (Particulars in this form are to be filled in by the Candidate after reading the Syllabi & instructions) Last Date : 02/07/2013 Exam Fee : 3000/- C. Length July 19, 2013 If Re-Appear in Subject with Practical , Do you want to appear in Practical Examination again? However, Alexander had to encounter and reduce the tribes on the border of Punjab before entering the luxuriant plains. In Pakistani Punjab, non-tribal social distinctions are primarily based on traditional occupations such as blacksmiths or artisans, as opposed to rigid social stratifications. Under Kanishka, Gandhara became a holy land of Buddhism and attracted Chinese pilgrims eager to view the monuments associated with many Jatakas. Punjab is Pakistan's second largest province by area after Balochistan with an area of 205,344 square kilometres (79,284 square miles). Located strategically on top of a mound, to protect itself from the annual flooding of the Sutlej river, is the ancient city of Kasur - now a vast graveyard. Middle Eastern and Central Asian soldiers, merchants, scholars, administrators, architects, theologians and Sufis migrated from the rest of the Islamic world to the expanding sultanates in the Indian subcontinent with migrations increasing rapidly after the Mongol invasions as the sultanates began to be seen as a safe haven and refuge for Muslims fleeing Mongol persecution. However, this is also a river of tragedy. Outline

[15][16] A clear divide is present between the northern and southern portions of the province;[14] with poverty rates in prosperous northern Punjab amongst the lowest in Pakistan,[17] while some in south Punjab are amongst the most impoverished.

The district of Sialkot excels in sports goods, surgical instruments and cutlery goods.Industrial estates are being developed by Punjab government to boost industrialization in province , Quaid e Azam Business Park Sheikhupura is one of the industrial area which is being developed near Sheikhupura on Lahore-Islamabad motorway.[86]. The Government of Punjab is a provincial government in the federal structure of Pakistan, is based in Lahore, the capital of the Punjab Province.

With 28 million people and a land area of about 50,000 km2, Punjab is one of the more densely populated parts of the world, but it is also the country's breadbasket, something that makes it one of the richer states in India (it produces nearly 2% of the world's wheat). 6. Alexander invested many troops, eventually killing 17,000 Cathians in this battle, and the city of Sagala (present-day Sialkot) was razed to the ground. _____________________________________________

In Punjab the rain season starts the first week of July, receiving most of the rain from the monsoon current in the Bay of Bengal. [1] Forming the bulk of the transnational Punjab region, it is bordered by the Pakistani provinces of Sindh, Balochistan, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, the enclave of Islamabad, and Azad Kashmir. Indian Sikh pilgrims visit holy sites such as Nankana Sahib. Buddhism flourished under the Indo-Greek kings, and their rule, especially that of Menander, has been remembered as benevolent. All Secretaries report to the Chief Secretary of Punjab, who is usually a BPS-22 Civil Servant. [7][8][9][10][11] In 326 BCE, Alexander the Great defeated King Porus at the Battle of the Hydaspes near Mong, Punjab. Most of the rivers

Traditional Punjabi thali consists of varied kinds of breads; some are baked in the tandoor such as tandoori roti, lachha paratha, naan and kulcha, while others are dry baked on tava like chapatti and jowar ki roti. In the acronym P-A-K-I-S-T-A-N, the P is for Punjab.[57][58]. HISTORY AND POLITICAL BACKGROUND OF PUNJAB Maues first conquered Gandhara and Taxila around 80 BCE, but his kingdom disintegrated after his death. One of its instructors was the Mauryan statesman and philosopher Chanakya. Muslim peoples: a world ethnographic survey / Richard V. Weekes, editor-in-chief Greenwood Press 1978, "Inferiority complex declining Punjabi language: Punjab University Vice-Chancellor". C. Community It is this river that every migrant into India - the Aryans, Persians, Greeks, Huns, Mongols, Mughals, and Afghans - has had to cross first, giving this land its unique identity. The mighty waves of the Chenab could not come to the rescue of Mirza as he was beaten to death by Sahiban's brother. In 1823 Azim Khan took control of Peshawar and with support from Pashtun tribesmen faced off against the encroaching Khalsa army in the Battle of Nowshera. Despite the lack of a coastline, Punjab is the most industrialised province of Pakistan;[13] its manufacturing industries produce textiles, sports goods, heavy machinery, electrical appliances, surgical instruments, vehicles, auto parts, metals, sugar mill plants, aircraft, cement, agricultural machinery, bicycles and rickshaws, floor coverings, and processed foods. The Punjabis followed different faiths throughout history, mainly Hinduism and Buddhism,[42] however Islam had the biggest impact on the region culturally. Gandhara's language was a Prakrit or "Middle Indo-Aryan" dialect, usually called Gāndhārī. Cotton and rice are important crops. Punjab's region temperature ranges from −2° to 45 °C, but can reach 50 °C (122 °F) in summer and can touch down to −10 °C in winter. From here the river then flows onto the dry Punjab plains of Pakistan and becomes a broad, slow moving, silt-laden stream. The earliest existing building in South Asia with enamelled tile-work is the tomb of Shah Yusuf Gardezi (1150 AD) at Multan. All are tributaries of the Indus River; the Sutlej being the largest. The kingdom was founded when the Graeco-Bactrian king Demetrius invaded the subcontinent early in the 2nd century BC. They also include Baits, Dohas, Lohris, Sehra, and Jugni.[99]. The Sikh Empire was established in 1799 under the rule of Ranjit Singh with his capital based in Lahore, until its defeat by the British.

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