point of equal time


Successful air navigation involves piloting an aircraft from place to place without getting lost, not breaking the laws applying to aircraft, or endangering the safety of those on board or on the ground. The Point of Equal Time(PET) or sometimes is referred to as Critical Point(CP), is that track position, in relation to two suitable airfields, from which it is the same time for an aircraft to fly to either. This may be supplemented using radio navigation aids or satellite based positioning systems. 0000006636 00000 n Here goes the sample: Given: Distance 'A' to 'B' 2346 NM Groundspeed 'out' 365 kt Groundspeed 'back' 480 kt The time from 'A' to the Point of Equal Time (PET) between 'A' and 'B' is: 167 … Air navigation differs from the navigation of surface craft in several ways; Aircraft travel at relatively high speeds, leaving less time to calculate their position en route. Once the pilot has calculated the actual headings required, the next step is to calculate the flight times for each leg. 210 outer scale aligned with 450 inner scale.

0000000967 00000 n trailer << /Size 52 /Info 19 0 R /Root 22 0 R /Prev 501562 /ID[<466df926e455ec8fb462dbd220329fd6><7b51546546acf2b5a843cb898cefb545>] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 22 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Pages 8 0 R /Metadata 20 0 R /JT 18 0 R /PageLabels 7 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /S 36 /T 129 /L 171 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 51 0 R >> stream In this system, a beacon emits a specially modulated signal which consists of two sine waves which are out of phase. Be cool. For fuel calculation these points (ETPs and PTOs) are covered by the calculation tool of the OFP. 21 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 23 /H [ 1070 259 ] /L 502110 /E 498816 /N 1 /T 501572 >> endobj xref 21 31 0000000016 00000 n

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H��W�n�F}�W�㲈h����n$�3h��4���HK��b������%)��hm@$��̙�3g�'��($�X�D���o��q�G +6��n����_���`����nƙW��v"c'`�$��TƬx9S����O�_����^�'����UOGviVK/�s�u���k/�%���*^̈́E����%�?�a0�C:H�/�� D"�%Ҁ��y�R #�ۭ�̙fW�9Y����R��h@��g�\W��?_�f~co.����������b�:�̲��~1Dž5q��H�~��Hb!�$:LB�o}�"�>��,���2nN����ѥj+��w嚵5��(~���� 2dV"�E���o{����� �1y��� ��MA�4��Q����-�D�()�(L��M�'�����3��F.91���-�_���8�x�Ld��N�~6X���<2�}���1p�s�\�H���,FN�Q,���f}����. At times the pilot may be required to file a flight plan for an alternate destination and to carry adequate fuel for this. Alternatively, with respect to a large region without airfields, e.g.

This means, for example, that if a station gives a given amount of time to a candidate in prime time, it must do the same for another candidate who requests it, at the same price if applicable.[1]. Be deliberate. Again, a cross-cut is used to pinpoint the location. Originally navigators used an astrodome and regular sextant but the more streamlined periscopic sextant was used from the 1940s to the 1990s. Union Square Press 2008, "Anderson Cooper's Talk Show Is a News Program, FCC Rules; The government regulators have determined talk show qualifies as news and is thus exempt from obligations to giving political candidates equal air time", "FCC Decides that it will No Longer Enforce the Zapple Doctrine – Killing the Last Remnant of the Fairness Doctrine", Communications Act of 1934, § 315; codified at 47 U.S.C. Be measured. IFR pilots may fly on other routes but they then must perform all such calculations themselves; the LSALT calculation is the most difficult.

The compass reading will be used to correct for any drift (precession) of the DI periodically. When an aircraft is in flight, it is moving relative to the body of air through which it is flying; therefore maintaining an accurate ground track is not as easy as it might appear, unless there is no wind at all—a very rare occurrence. VSL Eligible CPL(H) Course – 2020 Intakes, Aeropower Flight School – We Love Helicopters. A general aviation (GA) pilot will often make use of either a flight computer – a type of slide rule – or a purpose-designed electronic navigational computer to calculate initial headings.

ETP stands for Equal Time Point. Thanks for your feedback Kay - appreciated.

The Zapple Doctrine (part of a specific provision of the fairness doctrine) was similar to the equal-time rule but applied to different political campaign participants.

How to Land a Light Aircraft. Let’s find the ETP for a trip from Gympie to Chinchilla cruising at 5000ft and TAS 80kts. VOR is a more sophisticated system, and is still the primary air navigation system established for aircraft flying under IFR in those countries with many navigational aids.

This is the point from which the continuation of the flight to the destination would require the same time as the return flight to the point of departure (or between any two points on your flight plan A & B). In such cases, the pilot can turn 60 degrees away his desired heading for a given period of time. Normal Circuit.

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The equal time point is a point along the route from which it takes the same amount of time to return to departure as it would to continue to destination. The CP is also known as the "Equi-time Point" (ETP), because it is the point along track from where it will take the same time to continue to the planned destination as it will to divert/return to an alternate. By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Privacy Policy.

The pilot must adjust heading to compensate for the wind, in order to follow the ground track. Is this Aerofile Site Useful?

In recent years, strict beacon-to-beacon flight paths have started to be replaced by routes derived through performance-based navigation (PBN) techniques. Approach and Landing.

This is especially true if flying in the dark or over featureless terrain.

§ 315, Radio and TV Stations Required to Give Equal Time, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Equal-time_rule&oldid=980771646, Political mass media in the United States, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 28 September 2020, at 10:34. Aircraft are safety-limited by the amount of fuel they can carry; a surface vehicle can usually get lost, run out of fuel, then simply await rescue. Obviously the weather is rather poor today but let’s continue for the sake of the example…. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. It is also helpful to calculate the top of descent, or the point at which the pilot would plan to commence the descent for landing.

GNSS makes navigation precision once reserved to large RNAV-equipped aircraft available to the GA pilot. 0000001942 00000 n

What's AHEAD?

There is no in-flight rescue for most aircraft. It might be useful to briefly state here the formulae and Dalton flight computer solutions to the questions: What is the. For convenience, some VOR stations also transmit local weather information which the pilot can listen in to, perhaps generated by an Automated Surface Observing System. The location of the ETPs is usually defined by the Operational Flight Plan (OFP) but can be also assessed by locating the mid-points (equal-distance points) on a plotting chart or orientation chart and by applying a wind correction (e.g. Usually, the pilot will fly for some time as planned to a point where features on the ground are easily recognised. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! This was especially essential when trips were flown over oceans or other large bodies of water, where radio navigation aids were not originally available. Instrument flight rules (IFR) navigation is similar to visual flight rules (VFR) flight planning except that the task is generally made simpler by the use of special charts that show IFR routes from beacon to beacon with the lowest safe altitude (LSALT), bearings (in both directions), and distance marked for each route.

The information is also updated in the notices to airmen, or NOTAMs. GNSS provides very precise aircraft position, altitude, heading and ground speed information. Search options; Acronym Meaning; How to Abbreviate; List of Acronyms; Popular categories; Texting; Medical; Technology; Business; Military; Clear; Suggest.

For example, a two degree error at the halfway stage can be corrected by adjusting heading by four degrees the other way to arrive in position at the end of the leg. Commercial aircraft are not allowed to operate along a route that is out of range of a suitable place to land if an emergency such as an engine failure occurs.

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0000424532 00000 n If, for example, engine trouble occurs during flight it is important for the pilot to know whether the airport of departure or the airport of destination can be reached sooner. The basic principles of air navigation are identical to general navigation, which includes the process of planning, recording, and controlling the movement of a craft from one place to another.[1]. It also includes sufficient ground detail – towns, roads, wooded areas – to aid visual navigation.

Finally, the pilot should have in mind some alternative plans in case the route cannot be flown for some reason – unexpected weather conditions being the most common. Additionally, collisions with obstructions are usually fatal.

In Nil wind conditions, the ETP is located halfway between the two aerodromes, but in reality it is shifted depending on the windspeed and direction.

Therefore, constant awareness of position is critical for aircraft pilots. PET stands for Point of Equal Time (also Positron Emission Tomography and 588 more) I have a hard time understanding how it is calculated in my book that i use in school. Beyond this point that option is closed, and the plane must proceed to some other destination. Initially the pilot will calculate headings to fly for each leg of the trip prior to departure, using the forecast wind directions and speeds supplied by the meteorological authorities for the purpose. H�b``�e``�c```������@, ���@f���L�Xw ���B�3p50`Pe`-*g�~���W��1��q�l~�������}���t��df`�=L30�i6�ybPY� Q�@ endstream endobj 51 0 obj 140 endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 8 0 R /Resources 24 0 R /Contents 32 0 R /Thumb 1 0 R /MediaBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /CropBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /Rotate 0 >> endobj 24 0 obj << /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text /ImageC ] /Font << /TT2 31 0 R /TT4 28 0 R /TT6 27 0 R /TT8 33 0 R /TT9 35 0 R /TT11 36 0 R >> /XObject << /Im1 48 0 R >> /ExtGState << /GS1 49 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /Cs8 30 0 R >> >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /Ascent 891 /CapHeight 0 /Descent -216 /Flags 34 /FontBBox [ -568 -307 2028 1007 ] /FontName /IBPFKE+TimesNewRoman /ItalicAngle 0 /StemV 94 /FontFile2 38 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /Ascent 905 /CapHeight 718 /Descent -211 /Flags 32 /FontBBox [ -628 -376 2034 1010 ] /FontName /ICBECA+Arial,Bold /ItalicAngle 0 /StemV 144 /FontFile2 45 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 85 /Widths [ 278 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 722 0 722 722 667 611 0 0 278 0 0 611 833 722 778 667 778 722 0 611 722 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /ICBECA+Arial,Bold /FontDescriptor 26 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 169 /Widths [ 250 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 250 333 250 0 500 500 500 0 0 500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 722 0 0 0 0 556 0 0 333 389 0 0 0 0 0 556 0 0 556 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 444 0 444 500 444 0 500 500 278 0 0 278 0 500 500 500 0 333 389 278 0 500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 760 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /IBPFKE+TimesNewRoman /FontDescriptor 25 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /Ascent 891 /CapHeight 0 /Descent -216 /Flags 98 /FontBBox [ -498 -307 1120 1023 ] /FontName /IBPFJI+TimesNewRoman,Italic /ItalicAngle -15 /StemV 0 /FontFile2 39 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj [ /ICCBased 40 0 R ] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 32 /Widths [ 250 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /IBPFJI+TimesNewRoman,Italic /FontDescriptor 29 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Length 1905 /Filter /FlateDecode >> stream

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