overview of canada


In 1989 Canada joined the Organization of American States and signed a free trade agreement with the United States, a pact that was superseded in 1992 by the North American Free Trade Agreement (which also includes Mexico). The Seven Year’s War, in which England sought to gain more control of the country, then began in 1756. Canada's climate varies with location but the country is classified as being temperate in the south and arctic in the north. As expected from such a large country, its geography is varied including lakes, rivers, valleys, mountain ranges, rainforest and plains. What is the nickname for the Canadian dollar coin? Canada's capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Mon… Canada is the world's second largest country including all its rivers and lakes. After the British conquest of New France, the name Quebec was sometimes used instead of Canada. Although Canada shares many similarities with its southern neighbour—and, indeed, its popular culture and that of the United States are in many regards indistinguishable—the differences between the two countries, both temperamental and material, are profound. This land was later divided into different provinces, one of which was Manitoba. Canada is a bilingual country where French and English are both official languagesat the federal level. Do you know which Canadian cities have hosted the Olympics? There are also some French-speaking communities in other portions of Canada, mostly on the east coast, but the majority of the rest of the country speaks English. The third largest city is Vancouver, a centre for trade with the Pacific Rim countries and the principal western gateway to Canada’s developing interior. For information about Canada's immigration policy and how to immigrate to Canada. Canada's national police force is the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) and the size of the police force in relation to the population is relatively small for a developed country.

The first Europeans to reach the country were likely the Vikings and it is believed that Norse explorer Leif Eriksson led them to the coast of Labrador or Nova Scotia in 1000 CE. The Canadian 'Multiculturalism Act' underpins multicultural policies in Canada. Other key parts of its economy include agriculture, mining, transportation and telecommunications. Everyone is regarded as equal in Canada with individual freedoms protected by the Canadian Constitution. The French character in Quebec is also reflected in differences in religion, architecture, and schooling. Canada is a democratic country, with a parliamentary government, and is part of the Commonwealth. It remained this size until 1949 when Newfoundland became the 10th province. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Other major metropolitan areas include Calgary and Edmonton, Alberta; Quebec city, Quebec; and Winnipeg, Manitoba. Professor of History, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. By using ThoughtCo, you accept our, The Origins of British Columbia in Canada, Origins of the Saskatchewan Province of Canada, Canada's Population Estimates, Third Quarter 2018, M.A., Geography, California State University - East Bay, B.A., English and Geography, California State University - Sacramento. A number of Canadians are bilingual, with so…


Canada is one of the world's wealthiest nations, due to its wealth of natural resources; forests, minerals and fossil fuels. This separatist movement is, in part, due to Quebecers fear that the number of French speakers is declining in Canada. It lies some 250 miles (400 km) northeast of Toronto and 125 miles (200 km) west of Montreal, respectively Canada’s first and second cities in terms of population and economic, cultural, and educational importance. Much of Canada's topography consists of gently rolling hills with rock outcrops because the Canadian Shield, an ancient region with some of the world's oldest known rocks, covers almost half of the country. The French and British influences are supplemented by the cultures of the country’s native Indian peoples (in Canada often collectively called the First Nations) and the Inuit peoples, the former being far greater in number and the latter enjoying semiautonomous status in Canada’s newest territory, Nunavut. In Quebec the official language at the provincial level is French and there have been several Francophone initiatives to ensure that the language remains prominent there. It joined Canada in 1870 followed by British Columbia in 1871 and Prince Edward Island in 1873. Canada’s industry and land use vary based on region. More than that, Canadians live in a society that in most legal and official matters resembles Britain—at least in the English-speaking portion of the country. Its southern and western border with the United States, stretching 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world's longest bi-national land border. It was comprised of Upper Canada (the area that became Ontario), Lower Canada (the area that became Quebec), Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick. The Dominion of Canada (Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and the Canadas, which are today southern Ontario and southern Quebec) was established in 1867, but was still under British control. Therefore Queen Elizabeth II is the sovereign, head of state. The largest being the Great Bear Lake in the Northwest Territories, which covers an area of over 31,000 Km2. The US is Canada's largest trading partner, followed by China and the United Kingdom. A founding member (1961) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Canada is also a member of the Group of Seven (G7), which includes the world’s seven largest industrial democracies and, as the Group of Eight (G8), had included Russia until it was indefinitely suspended from membership in 2014. Canada is the world's second-largest country by area but its population, at slightly less than that of the state of California, is small by comparison. Nearly 90% of Canadians live within 99 miles of the U.S. border (because of harsh weather and the expense of building on permafrost in the north). Moraine Lake at dawn, Banff National Park, southwestern Alberta, Canada.

The most recent was in 1995 but it failed by a vote of 50.6% to 49.4%. That settlement, called Port Royal, was located in what is now Nova Scotia. The United States is the only country that borders Canada. British Columbia has the most temperate climate, where temperatures rarely dip below zero, while central, eastern Canada experiences hot humid summers and cold, snowy winters. Elsewhere in Canada, French influence is less apparent, confined largely to the dual use of French and English for place names, product labels, and road signs. Canada has one of the highest per capita immigration rates in the world and embraces multiculturalism. Canada serves as a global model for stability, sustainable prosperity, and economic inclusion, and advances these ideals through its strong and … Canada’s resources include nickel (mainly from Ontario), zinc, potash, uranium, sulfur, asbestos, aluminum, and copper. It takes seven hours to fly from Halifax in the east of Canada to Vancouver in the west of Canada. Canada's largest cities are Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Ottawa, and Calgary. Because of the long history of conflict between the English and French in Canada, a division between the two still exists in the country’s languages today. It takes seven hours to fly from Halifax in the east of Canada to Vancouver in the west of Canada. Quebec has twice held a referendum for independence from Canada in 1980 and 1995, both of which have been rejected. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. In addition to the French, the English also began exploring Canada for its fur and fish trade and in 1670 established the Hudson's Bay Company. Test your knowledge of Canada with this quiz. Canada is the world's second largest country including all its rivers and lakes. However, there are regional differences. Technically, Canada is a constitutional monarchy with the U.K. monarch as the head of state. The majority of Canada's southern border runs straight along the 49th parallel (49 degrees north latitude), while the border along and east of the Great Lakes is jagged. Despite Canada’s great size, it is one of the world’s most sparsely populated countries. Since the 1960s, immigration has expanded to include immigration from the Caribbean, Africa, east Asia, the Middle East and Latin America. Canada shares a 5,525-mile- (8,890-km-) long border with the United States (including Alaska)—the longest border in the world not patrolled by military forces—and the overwhelming majority of its population lives within 185 miles (300 km) of the international boundary.

In 2014, tourism accounted for approximately 2 percent ($34.4 billion) of Canada's GDP. Time-lapse video of various Canadian cities, including Calgary, Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver. Canada has 38 National Parks which support ancient forests, lush vegetation and an abundance of wildlife. Quebec, in particular, exhibits French adaptations: more than three-fourths of its population speaks French as their primary language. The word Canada is derived from the Huron-Iroquois kanata, meaning a village or settlement. Canada now considers itself officially a multicultural nation. Most Canadians speak either French or English, while many speak both. It was a founding member of the United Nations and has been active in a number of major UN agencies and other worldwide operations.

Canada encompasses six time zones and has the longest coastline of any country. As expected from such a large country, its geography is varied including lakes, rivers, valleys, mountain ranges, rainforest and plains.

Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. In 1534, French explorer Jacques Cartier discovered the St. Lawrence River while searching for fur and shortly thereafter, he claimed Canada for France. Temperatures vary depending on the region; the most northerly part of Canada experiences below zero temperatures for most of the year, dipping to below -30 degrees in the coldest parts. Other provinces primarily use English. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? It has three branches of government. However, the more populated, southern parts of Canada have hot summers, cool springs and cold winters. Canada is a federal nation made up of ten provinces and three territories. Canada has over two million lakes. In the years after the Treaty of Paris, English colonists flocked to Canada from England and the United States. Canadians have a number of core values indoctrinated in various Constitutional documents. Canada has been an influential member of the Commonwealth and has played a leading role in the organization of French-speaking countries known as La Francophonie. This area is also dotted with hundreds of lakes because of depressions in the land caused by the last glaciation.

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