russian winter ww2 temperature


Many men who had become separated from their units marched westward singly or in small groups and, when apprehended, freely admitted that their destination was Germany because "the war is over." The crackling of burning trees, the acrid ^ray-black smoke, the increasingly unbearable heat, and the feeling of uncertainty put troops under a severe strain. Even the most powerful Swedish ice breakers were unable to get through. Immediately after word of the Soviet attack reached the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW), or German high command, orders were sent to Manstein, the conqueror of Sevastopol, to take command of the Stalingrad sector.

In hilly terrain the Germans set up sand dumps, and all vehicles were ordered to carry sand. At one point a row of trees near the sand road burst into flames, but the threat to the wooded area across the road did not materialize.

They must be set up on both sides of the road, fifty to seventy feet from the shoulders. An ice cover of three feet or more on a lake supports the heaviest loads, and the Germans made ice roads by simply clearing snow with

Precautions must be taken against raising dust on unpaved airfields. The very short days of winter made night flying necessary for extended missions. It is well to remember that woods or terrain offering concealment usually become inaccessible during muddy seasons, and goods stored in such places must be removed well in advance of thaw or rains and dumped along roads. Icy roads can rob an offensive of surprise or be fatal to a withdrawal.

Poor visibility and clouds resembling high altitude fog frequently appear within the cold continental air masses and western warm air masses over the Volkhov River and Lake Peipus. As the flames died the column moved slowly through the smoldering embers and falling However both sides had their resources strained and at times one side or other suffered the severe consequences of underpreparedness, but Chew concluded that winter did not provide a decisive advantage to any of the combatants. By November 23, Yeremenko’s IV Mechanized Corps had linked up with Vatutin’s IV Tank Corps near Kalach, forming an iron ring around the Sixth Army and parts of the Fourth Panzer Army that had not been quick enough to escape the encirclement. Frequently, the infantry followed close behind their tanks, using the trail made by the tank tracks. to natural mineral deposits and the effects of the aurora borealis. A larger pocket, consisting of the Sixth Army headquarters, the VII and LI Army Corps and the XIV Panzer Corps, was centered in an area around the railroad station.

In winter, artillery can be displaced over ice. Such equipment, always scarce in the German Army, was controlled at army or army group level. This winter was the most brutal of the 18th century, so severe that the seaport of Venice froze during the Great Frost of 1709. the winter 0f 42-43 was colder than average but not as cold as the previous year. They were in a poor state to cope with the Russian winter and now the temperature began to plummet: The Russians had a real advantage over us, because they had warm felt boots and quilted uniforms, and we had only our thin overcoats, which did not offer much protection from the cold.

In situations where casualties could be evacuated only under cover of darkness, four litter bearers often required an entire night to bring out one man.

Wrap puttees are unsatisfactory because they become waterlogged and saturated with mud, Footwraps are warmer, cleaner, and more durable than socks. the division which was also bogged down to the north.

The Germans used a large number of Russian civilians, mostly women, for draining roads and making other improvements. Between Leningrad and the Luga River there are many wells sunk as deep as eighty feet; the water from these sources is cold and of excellent quality. In swamp regions there were isolated cases of malaria, and occasionally cases of cadaveric poisoning were noted. by LWD » 20 Sep 2011, 15:37, Post cart drawn by one native horse is well adapted to arctic conditions. Trenches and dugouts provide better cover in winter than in other seasons. Because of inclement weather, he was forced to travel south by train.

Mud is a related contributing factor that impairs military maneuvering in Russia and elsewhere, and is sometimes personified as "General Mud". The Germans fell back steadily and in March heavy snowfalls hampered the withdrawal as the Russian offensive continued. During the second half of autumn temperatures drop and the rains begin, ushering in the muddy period. In the Crimea, north of the Yaila Mountains, climatic conditions at the beginning of spring are similar to those in the southern Ukraine, and are marked by warm -weather and rapidly melting snow after mid-March. The Germans found that every one of four twelve-mile advances in the operation required four weeks of preparation for seven days of combat. Both are usually drawn by Tactical concentration, normally a routine matter, became an art in the desolate morass where new problems had to be solved each day. The component parts of signal equipment must be adaptable to pack-animal transport. of Russian forces encircled north of Cherkassy.

pieces. One can assume, however, that it was not worry over such an outcome that prevented Paulus from doing unilaterally what he saw as correct. ", wherein he demonstrated that the French suffered casualties in battles during relatively mild weather and outlined multiple causes for their defeat. Vehicles damage rails and switches which are hard to replace.

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